Acid is a waste byproduct of energy production and metabolism, as CO2 (~ 15 mole/day) and as nonvolatile acids (~ 100 mEq/day).
|Acid / Base disturbances
are reflected in the
[(HCO3- ) / (CO2)] ratio:
Metabolic acid/base disturbances are almost always associated with disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance. Tests in the panel to the right are used to assess metabolic acid/base disturbances and associated disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance. Normal ranges are shown by the gray areas for each test. The position of the horizontal red line represents a test result. Total CO2 represents bicarbonate concentration and reflects acid/base status; urea (BUN)and the urea/creatinine ratio reflect fluid balance status; electrolyte concentrations are altered characteristically in specific disturbances.